United Nations General Assembly
The General Assembly is the organ of the United Nations where all States converge with the same conditions of equality, which leads to say that it is the democratic organ of the United Nations, due to the equality of the intervening parties, as well as its composition. . In fact, the great development shown in International Law has been due to the relevant resolutions issued by the Assembly, such as the decolonization charter, the principles of international law for cooperation between States, the Resolution for peace, among others. .
The Charter of San Francisco, provides, with respect to the General Assembly of the United Nations, the following:
- The General Assembly shall be composed of all the Members of the United Nations.
- No member may have more than five representatives in the General Assembly.
The General Assembly may discuss any matters or questions within the limits of this Charter or that refer to the powers and functions of any of the bodies created by this Charter, and except as provided in Article 12, it may make recommendations on such matters or matters to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to it and to them.
- The General Assembly may consider the general principles of cooperation in the maintenance of international peace and security, including the principles governing disarmament and the regulation of armaments, and may also make recommendations regarding such principles to the Members or to the Security Council or this one and those.
- The General Assembly may discuss any question relating to the maintenance of international peace and security that any Member of the United Nations or the Security Council presents for its consideration, or that a State that is not a Member of the United Nations presents in accordance with Article 35, paragraph 2, and except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations on such matters to the State or States concerned or to the Security Council or to the latter. Any matter of this nature with respect to which action is required will be referred to the Security Council by the General Assembly before or after discussing it.
- The General Assembly may call the attention of the Security Council to situations that may endanger international peace and security.
- The powers of the General Assembly enumerated in this Article shall not limit the general scope of Article 10.
- While the Security Council is carrying out the functions assigned to it by this Charter with respect to a controversy or situation, the General Assembly will not make any recommendation on such controversy or situation, unless requested by the Security Council.
- The Secretary General, with the consent of the Security Council, shall report to the General Assembly, at each session, on all matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security that the Security Council may be dealing with, and shall also report to the General Assembly, or to the Members of the United Nations if the Assembly is not in session, as soon as the Security Council ceases to discuss such matters.
- The General Assembly will promote studies and make recommendations for the following purposes:
- promote international cooperation in the political field and promote the progressive development of international law and its codification;
- promoting international cooperation in matters of an economic, social, cultural, educational and health nature and helping to make effective human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without making any distinction on grounds of race, sex, language or religion.
- The other powers, responsibilities and functions of the General Assembly in relation to the matters mentioned in subsection b of the preceding paragraph 1 are listed in Chapters IX and X.
Except as provided in Article 12, the General Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful settlement of any situations, whatever their origin, that in the opinion of the Assembly may harm the general welfare or friendly relations between nations, including the resulting situations of a violation of the provisions of this Charter that state the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
- The General Assembly will receive and consider annual and special reports from the Security Council. These reports will include an account of the measures that the Security Council has decided to apply or has applied to maintain international peace and security.
- The General Assembly will receive and consider reports from the other organs of the United Nations.
The General Assembly shall perform, with respect to the international trusteeship regime, the functions attributed to it in accordance with Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements of areas not designated as strategic.
- The General Assembly shall examine and approve the budget of the Organization.
- The members shall bear the expenses of the Organization in the proportion determined by the General Assembly.
- The General Assembly shall consider and approve the financial and budgetary arrangements that are entered into with the specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 and shall examine the administrative budgets of such specialized agencies in order to make recommendations to the corresponding agencies.
- Each Member of the General Assembly will have one vote.
- Decisions of the General Assembly on important matters shall be taken by the vote of a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting. These matters shall include: recommendations relating to the maintenance of international peace and security, the election of the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the election of the members of the Economic and Social Council, the election of the members of the Trusteeship Council. Pursuant to subparagraph c, paragraph 1, of Article 86, the admission of new Members to the United Nations, the suspension of the rights and privileges of Members, the expulsion of Members, matters relating to the operation of the trusteeship regime and budget issues.
- Decisions on other issues, including the determination of additional categories of issues to be resolved by a two-thirds majority, will be made by a majority of the members present and voting.
The Member of the United Nations that is in default in the payment of its financial contributions for the expenses of the Organization, will not have a vote in the General Assembly when the amount owed is equal to or greater than the total of the contributions owed for the previous two years. complete. The General Assembly may, however, allow said Member to vote if it concludes that the delay is due to circumstances beyond the control of said Member.
The General Assembly will meet annually in ordinary sessions and, whenever circumstances require, in extraordinary sessions. The Secretary General shall convene extraordinary sessions at the request of the Security Council or the majority of the Members of the United Nations.
The General Assembly will dictate its own regulations and will elect its President for each session.
The General Assembly may establish the subsidiary bodies it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.
- Resolution 2625 on Declaration on the principles of international law regarding friendly relations and cooperation between States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.